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好常时间沒你的信息是什么歌,大学体验英语 第三版 七八单元翻译

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第一篇:大学体验英语第三版 七八单元翻译

大学生在校做研究

哥伦比亚大学工程学院二年级学生索菲亚•斯黛拉,是众多以各种方式在校参与研究工作的学生之一。这些学生有的是为了拿学分,有的是为了挣钱,还有的就是为了多一份经历。老师和学生都认为,大学生从事研究工作对师生双方都有特别的好处。

的确,大学生从事研究是一种深入学习的机会,能拓展思维,而这是传统教育无法做到的。经济学教授拉尔夫•爱迪生说:“要真正学好一门课程,你得认识到:知识不是现成的,等着你去被动吸收,而是在不断地创新,所以我们得不断地进行再思考……一般来说,当学生认识到一门学科是发展的而非静止的,他们就会对学习产生更大的兴趣,因为他们看到这是个发展的过程。”他指出,做研究是一件让人兴奋的事情,因为“一项研究确实能给学生提供机会去解决现实生活中我们没有现成答案的问题。”

做研究同时也能激发学生进行独立思考并树立自信心。艾米莉亚是计算机系的研究生,她说:“你得走出课堂自己学习,没有人会用勺子喂你知识。”大学时期从事研究工作的美好回忆促使她下决心放弃在华尔街的编程工作,重返哥伦比亚大学读研究生。

哥伦比亚大学政治科学系的毕业生亚瑟•汉纳说,大学生从事研究“就像是一种全新的学习方式。”他说做研究不是让学生寻找已有的知识,而是促使他们探索尚未掌握的知识。这是一个发现空白然后再竭力填补空白的过程,与在教室里学习人们业已掌握的知识完全不同。他还认为,一项独特有创意的研究会让你的工作充满“独家创造的自豪”,这可是他在常规课程里从来没有感受到的。

多数大学生做研究是为了拿学分。他们注册一门学期课程,为老师做一个项目,老师也就会给他们的工作打分。有些系的学生通过做研究项目,可能据此写出一篇(教学计划规定之外的)论文,从而在毕业时获得(这个学科的单科优秀)荣誉。

有些学生做研究是为了挣钱。如果只是将做科研看成一种就业,这可是大学生能得到的最理想的工作之一。斯黛拉说:“我需要一份收入,与其在餐厅端盘子,不如在这里工作。”有偿研究工作使她的勤工俭学变成了充满魅力的学习机会。她的工资也有保障,因为今年启动了一项计划,给大学生研究工作提供100 000美元的基金。这笔资金将给50名大学生提供勤工俭学的研究岗位。

还有些学生做研究既不是为学分,也不是为钱,完全是出于自愿。通常,这些学生将来从事的职业需要他们关心他人,比如当医生。

正如经济学教授拉尔夫•爱迪生所说:“大学生做研究可以成为教育中宝贵的一部分,这是一项真实而有益的特权。它是特别环境下为特别的人准备的特别任务。”

学习的最佳方法——创造性模仿

我有个小儿子,我注意到他每天都在学些新东西。没过多久我就发现他在观察我,之后我做什么他就会学着做什么。就用这种简单的办法他学会了走路、跑步、开门、爬楼梯。他做这些事情从不完全学我的样子,而是添上自己创造的特色,我把他的这种学习方法称作创造性模仿。

创造性模仿让我实现了参加职业网球巡回赛的目标。我用几种方法创造性地模仿那些职业锦标赛的获胜者。我通读了在图书馆和书店里能找到的每一本有关网球的书。我仔细研究以前的每一本过期的网球杂志,寻找各种关于网球技术的文章;我在电视上观看职业选手的比赛;我把职业网球比赛实况进行录像并反复播放,有时候还要用慢镜头播放;我还去现场看职业比赛。边学边观察,将绝大部分心得写在日记里。我记的日记有好几本,还做了上千张索引卡片。这些笔记帮助我将观察心得用于实践。就这样,我从一个二流大学网球队的候补队员变成了一个在小型职业赛上能够夺冠的选手。创造性模仿使我找到了学习网球技术的最好办法。

获得博士学位不久,我打算做一个业余行当——开学习班。又是创造性模仿帮助我来实现我的目标。1985年初我买了一台电脑,这是我向商界过渡的第一步。我再一次竭尽全力学习如何在工作中使用这台电脑。我订阅了电脑期刊,学习使用电子制表软件、数据库、文字处理、制图、桌面排版系统以及大纲处理软件。我记下书本上的或是我自己思考的以及从发表的文章里得来的几乎每一个想法。我成为了一名兼职电脑软硬件经销商和顾问。

因为有了这些软件技术,我相信自己有能力在事业上做更大的事情。我意识到我能管理涉及许多同事、顾客、资源和产品等方方面面事务的复杂项目。1988年,我向社会公开办学习班,事业做得非常成功,所以我在1989年能够永远舍弃传统教育这一行。几年以后,原本只有我一个人的家庭企业发展成了一个大集团公司,至少培养了11 000名成人学习电脑和商务技术。

我的成功表明,创造性模仿的成功秘诀在于模仿世上那些成功的人和实干的人。在事业上模仿他人的最好办法就是跟踪观察他们,看他们如何行事。如果这样做得久了,又跟对了人,并且将观察到的用于实践,你就会成功。第二个最好的途径就是多听多读表率人物或者导师的所作所为,看他们是如何做到的。对他们的成功之道了解越多,助你成功的线索也就越多。

新生的友谊

大约两年前,我与三个最亲密的朋友手拉手站在寝室的阳台上,听其中一个讲述有关四个女孩的故事。这四个女孩背景不同,天赋各异。她们离开家,来到大学校园,一个叫作"幸福谷"的神秘地方。

大学一年级的最后一个晚上,我们离开朋友的寝室,来到校园的草坪上,在凌晨三点玩起了飞盘,然后坐在宿舍的台阶上一聊就是好几个小时。

艾莉莎、卡伦、加布里埃尔莉和我就像大学新生一样度过了那一天。我们去了三明治店享受那个学期的最后一顿午餐,换穿彼此的外衣,去电影院看电影,仿佛我们再也不会相见。

漫长的三个月。

对新生来说,特别是对我们来说,在第一年的年末相互道别确实就像要永别似的。

当你离开刚认识一年的朋友和熟人,三个月也许是一段漫长的时间。但大学第一年的时光却是无法替代的。

我给每一位读到这篇文章的新生的建议是:珍惜那段时光。随着你成长,也许将完全远离那些与你一起共同度过大学一年级生活的人,或者你也许能像我一样幸运,能在大学三年级有她们这些情同手足的朋友。

即使两年以后,你可能几乎完全忘却了大学一年级时候的室友,在体育馆门口碰到时也几乎认不出他们,但是大学第一年和这一年所带给你的全新感觉却是绝对无法替代的。

大学第一年过后,很多东西都会改变。遇到新朋友,尝试新事物。你会在成长过程中经历更多的事情。

大学四年级开始的时候,卡伦带着她家乡的男友凯文参观了我们的校园和城市。她指着我们在宾夕法尼亚州的头两年住过的阿瑟特顿大厦说:"这就是我们长大的地方。"

我们在课外学到的东西要比课内多。寝室是我们学习讨论大一和大二的功课的地方。我学到的最重要的东西就是真正的友谊是什么。我从未有过比艾莉莎、卡伦、加布里埃尔莉更好的良师益友。

那一课可以用艾莉莎和卡伦对我说过的一番话来做一个最好的总结。当时是最后一个学期期末,我很难过,需要靠在一个人肩上痛哭一场。艾莉莎和卡伦对我说:“不管以后我们相 距多远,或与谁交朋友了,只要我们想起大学生活,我们首先就会想起彼此。”

我完全赞同。

艾莉莎在阳台上讲的那个关于友情的故事还远远没有结束。有时候,我想故事的结局会不会是这样:

"…那四个小女孩长大了,实现了自己的梦想。她们现在天各一方,做自己想做的事情,从农村到城市,到郊区都能找到她们的身影,——一个是电脑技师,一个是医生,一个是律师,还有一个成了建筑师,有自己心爱的丈夫、孩子和宠物相伴。

偶尔,她们还会回到那个神秘的山谷,与老朋友见面,笑谈那些美好的时光。忘掉所有的 不快。

从此过着幸福的生活。"

超越生死的爱

她最喜欢红玫瑰,她的名字也叫“玫瑰”。每年, 她丈夫都会用漂亮的蝴蝶结扎上一束美丽的玫瑰送给她。丈夫去世的那一年,玫瑰依旧送到了她的门前。像以往的每年一样,玫瑰中的卡片上写着:“献给我心爱的人。”

每一年他给她送玫瑰,卡片上都会写着:“我爱你一年胜似一年”,或“我对你的爱将与日俱增”。丈夫去世的那年,她相信那将是最后一次在门前出现玫瑰。

她想丈夫一定是在这天以前提前预订了玫瑰花。她亲爱的丈夫并不知道自己会离她而去。他总习惯把事情提前办好,大大早于预定日期。这样一来,就算他很忙,一切仍然能有条不紊地进行。

她修剪了一下玫瑰的根茎,郑重地把它们插入一个很特别的花瓶里,然后坐在丈夫最喜爱的椅子上,茫然地凝视着他的照片,一坐就是几个小时,玫瑰就放在照片旁边。

一年过去了,没有丈夫陪伴的生活是如此的难熬。孤独、寂寞,她的生活仿佛一场悲剧。情人节那天,又是同样的时刻,门铃响了,一束红玫瑰放在她家门前。

她把玫瑰花拿进屋,望着这些玫瑰吃惊不已。随后,她给送花的花店老板打了电话。老板接的电话,她问他到底是谁要这样出人意料地对她做这种事,勾起她无限的忧伤。

“我知道您的丈夫一年多以前去世了,”花店老板说,“我也知道您会打电话过来问的,”他接着说,“您今天收到的玫瑰,是预先付过账的。您丈夫总是预先计划好一切,不会遗漏任何一件事情。”

“我这儿有一份长期订单,您丈夫早就把钱付了。所以,您以后仍将每年收到玫瑰花。另外,还有一件事情得跟您说,您丈夫几年前给您写了一张特别的小卡片。”

“如果哪一年他不在了,我就会在第二年把这张卡片交给您。”她跟老板道谢,然后挂了电话,眼泪潸然而下。犹疑踯躅中,她抽出了那张卡片,手指禁不住颤抖起来。

卡片里有她丈夫写的一封短信。她看着信,四周一片寂静。信是这样写的:

“亲爱的,离开你已经有一年了。对你的爱无法用言语表达。你是个完美的妻子,理想的伴侣。你是我的朋友,也是我的恋人。你让我无比满足。

当你收到这些玫瑰的时候,想想我们在一起的快乐时光吧,我们如此幸运,因为彼此拥有对方。你每年都将收到我的玫瑰,除非花店来送花的时候没有人应门。

送花的人会在那天上门五次,以防你出门了。但是,如果第五次还敲不开你的门,他也知道该怎么办。他将把这些玫瑰送到我告诉过他的地方,那个我们俩重新相聚的地方。”

第二篇:第三单元大学英语英语翻译

Organizing Data in a Traditional File

Environment

An effective information system provides users with timely, accurate, and relevant information. This information is stored in computer files. When the files are properly arranged and maintained, users can easily access and retrieve the information they need. 传统环境下的数据组织

一个高效的信息系统应向使用者提供及时、准确以及相关的信息。信息存储在系统的文件中。正确地整理和维护文件,可以使用户很容易地检索到他们所需要的信息。

You can appreciate the importance of file management if you have ever written a term paper using 3×5 index cards.

No matter how efficient your storage device (a metal box or a rubber band), if you organize the cards randomly your term paper will have little or no organization.

如果你在撰写学期论文时曾经使用过3×5索引卡,你会体会到文件管理的重要性。不管你的存储设备(一个金属盒或一个皮筋)效率如何,如果你随意地组织你的卡片,你的学期论文将会缺乏组织性

Given enough time, you could put the cards in order, but your system would be more efficient if you set up your organizational scheme early on. If your scheme is flexible enough and well documented, you can extend it to account for any changes in your viewpoint as you write your paper. 如果有足够的时间,你可以将卡片按次序放置,但是如果你早点创建你自己的组织方案,你的系统会做得更有效。如果你的方案足够的灵活并且文档也很齐全,那么在你撰写论文时,可以利用它来说明观点中的任何变化。

The same need for file organization applies to firms.

Well-managed, carefully arranged files make it easy to obtain data for business decisions, whereas poorly managed files lead to chaos in information processing high costs, poor performance, and little, if any, flexibility. Despite the use of excellent hardware and software, many organizations have inefficient information systems because of poor file management.公司同样也需要组织文件。组织良好,认真安排的文件可以使商业决策获取数据变得更容易,而组织混乱的文件只能导致信息处理紊乱、成本高、性能差并且灵活性低。尽管使用优秀的硬件和软件,但由于文件组织得不好,很多组织的信息系统的效率还是很低。

File Organization Terms and Concepts A computer system organizes data in hierarchy that starts with bits and bytes and progresses to fields, records, files, and databases. A bit represents the smallest unit of data a computer can handle.

文件组织术语及概念

计算机系统按层次组织数据,位、字节、数据项、记录、文件和数据库。位代表计算机中最小的数据单位。

A group of bits, called a byte, represents a single character, which can be a letter, a number, or another symbol. A grouping of characters into a word, a group of words, or a complete number (such as a person’s name or age), is called a field.

一组位,叫做一个字节,表示一个独立的字,它可以是一个字母、一个数字或其它的符号。一组字组成一个词、一组词或一个纯数字(例如一个人的名字或年龄)叫做一个字段。

A group of related fields, such as the student’s name, the course taken, the date, and the grade, comprises a record; a group of records of the same type is called a file. For instance, the student records could constitute a course file. 一组相关的字段,例如学生的姓名、所选的课程、日期、年级,组成一个记录;一组相同类型的记录被称为文件。例如,学生记录可以构成一个课程文件。

A group of related files makes up a database. The student course file could be grouped with files on student’s personal histories and financial backgrounds to create a student database. 一组相关的文件组成一个数据库。学生课程文件可以和学生个人履历文件、个人经济情况文件共同创建一个学生数据库。

A record describes an entity. An entity is a person, place, thing, or event on which we maintain information. An order is a typical entity in a sales order file, which maintains information on a firm’s sales orders. Each characteristic or quality describing a particular entity is called an attribute.

一个记录描述了一个实体。一个实体可以是一个人、一个地方、一个东西或一件事情,我们维护与它们有关的信息。销售订单文件提供一个公司销售订单信息,在销售订单文件中,一个订单是一个典型的实体。

For example, order number, order date, order amount, item number, and item quantity would each be an attribute of the entity order. The specific values that these attributes can have can be found in the fields of the record describing the entity order. 每个用来描述具体实体的特质或特征的叫做属性。例如,订单号、订货日期、订货量、产品代码和产品数量每一个都是实体订单的一个属性。这些属性的具体取值可以在描述实体订单的记录中的字段里找到。

Every record in a file should contain at least one field that uniquely identifiesthat record so that the record can be retrieved, update, or sorted. This identifier field is called a key field. An example of a key field is the order number for the order record or an employee number or social security number for a personnel record (containing employee data such as the employees’ name, age, address, job title, and so forth). 文件中的每一条记录至少包含一个能被唯一识别的数据字段,这样记录可被检索、更新或分类。这个标识字段叫做关键字段。举个关键字段的例子,如订单号是订单记录的关键字段,员工编号或社会保险号是一个个人记录(包括员工数据,例如员工的名字、年龄、住址、工作职别等等)的关键字段。

Accessing Records from Computer Files

Computer systems store files on secondary storage devices. Records can be arranged in several ways on storage media, and the arrangement determines the manner in which individual records can be accessed or retrieved.从计算机文件中存取记录

计算机系统将文件存储在外存设备中。记录以多种方式存放在存储介质中,而且存放方式决定了单个记录被存取或检索的方式。

One way to organize records is sequentially. In sequential file organization, data records must be retrieved in the same physical sequence in which they are stored. In contrast, direct or random file organization allows users to access records in any sequence they desire, without regard to actual physical order on the storage media. 一种组织记录的方式是有序的。在按顺序组织的文件中,数据记录的检索顺序必须与数据的存储顺序相同。相反,不考虑存取介质的物理顺序,直接或随机存取文件允许用户以任何他们想要的顺序存取文件。

Sequential file organization is the only file organization method that can be used on magnetic tape. This file organization method is no longer popular, but some organizations still use it for batch processing applications in which they access and process each record sequentially.顺序文件组织是唯一的一种可以用在磁带上的文件组织方式。这种文件组织方式已不再流行了,但是一些组织仍然使用它来进行批处理,这些处理对每一条记录依次进行存储和处理。

A typical application using sequential files is payroll, in which all employees in a firm must be paid one by one and issued a check. Direct or random file organization is utilized with magnetic disk technology (although records can be stored sequentially on disk if desired). Most computer applications today utilize some method of direct file organization. 顺序文件的一个典型应用是工资单,必须依次地对工资单中的所有公司职员支付工资和支票。直接存取或随机存取文件组织方式可用于磁盘技术(但是,如果愿意的话,磁盘中的记录可以按顺序存储)。

Problems with the Traditional File Environment

Most organizations began information processing on a small scale, automating one application at a time. Systems tended to grow independently, and not according to some grand plan. Each functional area tended to develop systems in isolation from other functional areas. Accounting, finance, manufacturing, human resources, and marketing all developed their own systems and data files.

传统文件环境存在的问题

大多数组织每次进行的都是小规模的、自动化的信息处理。系统越来越具有独立性,并且不再采用大型的方案。每个功能区的开发都试图孤立于其它模块。会计、金融、生产、人力资源和销售均开发各自的系统和数据文件。

Each application, of course, required its own files and its own computer program to operate. For example, the human resources functional area might have a personnel master file, a payroll file, a medical insurance file, a pension file, a mailing list file, and so forth until tens, perhaps hundreds, of files and programs existed.

当然,每个应用都需要自己的文件和计算机系统。例如,人力资源功能区可能需要一个人事主文件、一个工资文件、一个医保文件、一个退休金文件、一个邮件发送清单文件等等,几十个甚至上百个文件或程序。

In the company as a whole, this process led to multiple master files created, maintained, and operated by separate divisions or departments. 就整个公司来说,这个过程会导致多种主要文件的创建、维护,并被不同的部门使用。

There are names for this situation: traditional file environment; the flat file organization (because most of the data are organized in flat files); and the data file approach (because the data and business logic are tied to specific files and related programs). By any name, the situation results in growing inefficiency and complexity. 对这种情况的叫法有:传统文件环境、平面文件组织(因为大部分的数据组织在平面文件里)、数据文件方式(因为数据和事务逻辑被捆绑于具体的文件和相关的程序中)。无论是哪个名字,这种环境的结果就是低效和复杂性越来越大。

As this process goes on for five or ten years, the organization is saddled with hundreds of programs and applications, with no one who knows what they do, what data they use, and who is using the data.

当这种处理方法使用了五或十年,组织已经承载了上百个程序和应用软件,没有人知道这些程序和软件做什么,用什么数据,并且谁在使用数据。

The organization is collecting the same information in far too many files. The resulting problems are data redundancy, program-data dependence, inflexibility, poor data security, and inability to share data among applications.

组织可以从多个文件中搜集同一个信息。导致的问题就是数据冗余、程序与数据间相依赖、非灵活性、缺乏数据安全性和应用软件之间无法共享数据。

Data Redundancy and Confusion

Data redundancy is the presence of duplicate data in multiple data files. Data redundancy occurs when different divisions, functional areas, and groups in an organization independently collect the same piece of information. For instance, within the commercial loans division of a bank, the marketing and credit information functions might collect the same customer information. 数据冗余和混乱

数据冗余表现为完全一样的数据存放在多个数据文件中。当一个组织中不同的部门、功能和团体独立地搜集相同部分信息时就会发生数据冗余。例如,在一个银行的商业贷款部门里,市场和借贷信息功能可能搜集相同的客户信息。

Because it is collected and maintained in so many different places, the same data item may have different meanings in different parts of the organization. Simple data items such as the fiscal year, employee identification, and product code can take on differentmeanings as programmers and analysts work in isolation on different applications. 由于信息的搜集和维护是在不同的地方进行的,所以相同的数据项会在组织中不同的部分有不同的含义。当不同的应用软件的程序员和分析工作是相互孤立的,简单的数据项,例如会计、员工身份证明和产品编码会表现出不同的意思。

Program-Data Dependence

Program-data dependence is the tight relationship between data stored in files and the specific programs required to update and maintain those files. Every computer program has to describe the location and nature of the data with which it works.程序与数据间相依赖

程序和数据之间的依赖是指存储在文件中的数据和用来更新及维护这些文件的具体的程序间存在紧密的关系。每个计算机程序都必须对它使用的数据的位置和属性进行描述。

In a traditional file environment, any change in data requires a change in all programs that access the data. Changes, for instance, in tax rates or ZIP-code length require changes in programs. Such programming changes may cost millions of dollars to implement in programs that require the revised data. 在传统文件环境中,数据的任何更改要求所有存取这一数据的程序发生改变。例如,税率或邮政编码长度的变化要求程序也要随之变动。这种对修改了数据的程序进行设计上的改变可能会花费几百万美元。

Lack of Flexibility

A traditional file system can deliver routine scheduled reports after extensive programming efforts, but it cannot deliver ad hoc reports or respond unanticipated information requirements in a timely fashion.. 缺乏灵活性

一个传统文件系统在大量的程序设计工作后会提供常规的日程安排报告,但是它不能提供临时的报告或及时回应事先无法预料到的信息需求。

The information required by ad hoc requests is somewhere in the system but too expensive to retrieve. Several programmers would have to work for weeks to put together the required data items in a new file.

临时请求所需要的信息存储在系统某处,但由于花费高而无法获取。几个程序员需要花费数周的时间将所需的数据项放到一个新文件中。

Poor Security

Because there is little control or management of data, access to and dissemination of information are virtually out of control. What limits on access exist tend to be the result of habit and tradition, as well as of the sheer difficulty of finding information. 缺乏安全性

由于对数据的控制和管理太少,信息的存取和传播实际上是不被控制的。现有的存取限制是由习惯和惯例所造就的,同样也造就了寻找信息的异常艰难。

Lack of Data-Sharing and Availability

The lack of control over access to data in this confused environment does not make it easy for people to obtain information. Because pieces of information in different files and different parts of the organization cannot be related to one another, it is virtually impossible for information to be shared or accessed in a timely manner.缺乏数据共享和有效性

在这种混乱的环境里,对数据的存取缺乏控制使得人们很难获取信息。因为不同文件中的信息和组织的不同部分不能联系起来,所以信息无法及时共享或存取。

The Database Environment Database technology can cut through many of the problems created by traditional file organization. A more rigorous definition of a database is collection of data organized to serve many applications efficiently by centralizing the data and minimizing redundant data.

数据库环境

数据库技术可以解决很多有传统文件组织方式引发的问题。对数据库更严密的定义是通过集中数据和减少多余的数据,有效地向应用软件提供组织过的数据集合。

Rather than storing data in separate files for each application, data are stored physically to appear to users as being stored in only one location.

数据的物理存放要让用户觉着数据被存放在唯一的一个地方,而不是存储到每个应用程序所需的相互独立的文件上。

A single database services multiple applications.

For example, instead of a corporation storing employee data in separate information systems and separate files for personnel, payroll, and benefits, the corporation could create a single common human resources database.

一个数据库可以为多个应用程序提供服务。例如,将员工数据存储在相互独立的信息系统和相互独立的员工文件、工资文件和保险金文件中的一个替代做法是,公司可以创建一个通用的人力资源数据库。

Database Management Systems

A database management system (DBMS) is simply the software that permits an organization to centralize data, manage them efficiently, and provide access to the stored data by application programs.

数据库管理系统

数据库管理系统(DBMS)就是一个简单的软件,它允许一个组织集成数据、有效管理数据并且通过应用程序提供对存储数据的存取。

The DBMS acts as an interface between application programs and the physical data files. When the application program calls for data item such as gross pay, the DBMS finds this item in the database and presents it to the application program. DBMS在应用程序和物理数据文件间扮演接口的角色。当应用程序需要如工资总额的数据项,DBMS在数据库中查找这一数据项并将它提交给应用程序。

Using traditional data files the programmer would have to define the data and then tell the computer where they were. A DBMS eliminates most of the data definition statements found in traditional programs.

A database management system has three components: A data definition language A data manipulation language A data dictionary 使用传统的数据文件,程序员不得不定义数据并且告诉计算机它们在那儿。一个DBMS会去除大部分传统程序中的数据定义声明。

一个数据库管理系统包含三个组成部分: 数据定义语言 数据操作语言 数据字典

The data definition language is the formal language used by programmers to specify the content and structure of the database. The data definition language defines each data element as it appears in the database before that data element is translated into the forms required by application programs.

数据定义语言是程序员用来详述数据库内容和结构的形式语言。在数据元素被翻译成应用程序所需要的形式之前,数据定义语言定义了数据库中的每一个数据元素。

Most DBMS have a specialized language called a data manipulation language that is used in conjunction with some conventional third-or fourth-generation programming languages to manipulate the data in the database. This language contains commands that permit end users and programming specialists to extract data from the database to satisfy information requests and develop applications.

大部分DBMS有一种叫做数据操作语言的专用语言,它和传统的第三代或第四代程序语言结合起来操作数据库中的数据。这种语言包括允许终端用户和程序设计专家从数据库中提取数据来满足信息需求和应用开发的命令。

The most prominent data manipulation language today is Structured Query Language, or SQL. Complex programming tasks cannot be performed efficiently with typical data manipulation languages. However, most mainframe DBMS are compatible with COBOL, FORTRAN, and other third-generation programming languages, permitting greater processing efficiency and flexibility.现今,最杰出的数据操作语言是结构化查询语言,或者叫SQL。使用典型的数据操作语言,复杂的编程任务无法被高效率地执行。然而大部分中央处理机的DBMS与COBOL, FORTRAN及其他第三代编程语言相兼容,这就使得处理更高效和更灵活。

The third element of a DBMS is a data dictionary. This is an automated or manual file that stores definitions of data elements and data characteristics such as usage, physical representation, ownership (who in the organization is responsible for maintaining the data), authorization, and security. Many data dictionaries can produce lists and reports of data utilization, groupings, program locations, and so on. DBMS的第三个元素是数据字典。这是一个自动或手工的文件,存储了对数据元素和数据属性的定义,例如使用、物理表示、所有权(组织中谁负责维护数据)、授权和安全。很多数据字典可以提供数据使用、分组、程序存储位置等内容的列表和报告。

By creating an inventory of data contained in the database, the data dictionary serves as an important data management tool. For instance, business users could consult the dictionary to find out exactly what pieces of data are maintained for the sales or marketing function or even to determine all the information maintained by the entire enterprise.

由于建立了一个数据库中数据的清单,数据字典成为一个重要的数据管理工具。例如,商业用户可以翻阅字典来正确地查找出用于销售或市场功能的数据或者甚至支配整个公司的所有信息。

The dictionary could supply business users with the name, format, and specifications required to access data for reports. Technical staff could use the dictionary to determine what data elements and files must be changed if a program is changed. 字典可以为商业用户提供名字、格式和说明,以获取报告所需数据。技术员工可以利用字典来决定如果一个程序发生了改动,那么什么样的数据元素和文件也必须被改变。

Most data dictionaries are entirely passive; they simply report. More advanced types are active; changes in the dictionary can be automatically utilized by related programs. For instance, to change ZIP codes from five to nine digits, one could simply enter the change in the dictionary without having to modify and recompile all application programs using ZIP codes. 大部分的字典是完全被动式的;它们只不过是报告。更高类型的字典是主动的;相关程序可自动地使用字典中的变化。例如,将邮政编码由五位改为九位,一个人可以简单地在字典中记录这一改变,不必修改和重新编译所有使用邮政编码的程序。

In an ideal database environment, the data in the database are defined only once and used for all applications whose data reside in the database, thereby eliminating data redundancy and inconsistency. Application programs, which are written using a combination of the data manipulation language of the DBMS and a conventional programming language, request data elements from the database.

在一个理想的数据库环境里,数据库中的数据只被定义一次就可以被所有的应用软件使用,因此可以消除数据的冗余和不一致性。结合DBMS的数据操作语言和常规程序语言编写的应用程序需要数据库中的数据元素。

Data elements called for by the application programs are found and delivered by the DBMS. The programmer does not have to specify in detail how or where the data are to be found. 应用程序需要的数据元素可由DBMS查找和传递。程序员不必详述查找数据的位置和方式。

Use of a DBMS can reduce program-data dependence along with program development and maintenance costs. Access and availability of information can be increased because users and programmers can perform ad hoc queries of data in the database. The DBMS allows the organization to centrally manage data, utilization, and security. 使用DBMS除了减少程序的开发和维护费用,还可以减少程序和数据间的依赖。由于用户和程序员可以对数据库中的数据进行随机查询,信息的可获性和可用性得到提高。DBMS允许组织集中管理数据、应用和安全。

New Words(1) New Words(2) New Words(3) New Words(4) New Words(5) New Words(6) Phrases(1) Phrases(2) Abbreviations Questions for Discussion Why do we need file organization? How to access records from computer files? Which problems exist in the traditional file environment? What is DBMS? How does DBMS resolve problems in the traditional file environment? Translation for Reference

第三篇:体验商务英语第十三单元翻译

第十三单元

从利物浦到东京

Boodle & Dunthorne 是一家珠宝制造和零售商。 Joloda 制造卡车装货设备。两家公

司总部都在英国利物浦。首席执行官为 Martin Wainwright (Boodle & Dunthorne) 和Wainwright Kordel(Joloda)。

1. 为重要的文化和语言差异做好准备。这点貌似非常明显,但仍有一些人在日本却不雇佣一名能够同时解释传统和文化的优质翻译而试图勉强应付过去。

2. 利用高层的人际关系。这比利用价格更为重要。本人出席至关重要。在Joloda公司对日销售的十年之后,最近才引进了一名新的销售员。Wainwright表示在日本的国家贸易展览会上的定期展览对其目标部门建立概评非常重要。

3. 耐心取得回报。在成功获得一个订单之前可能要奔波数次。Boodle & Dunthorne在开始工作之前花费了大约16个月而Wainwright在得到一个订单之前花费了40,000英镑。他曾经从一个贸易展览上返回英国并打算就此结束,但就在这时,与他一起本打算第二天收工的销售经理接到三天以后与三井公司会面的电话。Boodle & Dunthorne迅速地获得成功。

4. 避免中间人从而缩短交货时间。Joloda 在日本有一个代理商,但这能够缩短配销链从而提供更快的服务。Boodle & Dunthorne 雇佣了一位顶尖设计Rebecca Hawkins,并自主制造珠宝,从而提供了具有原创设计的快速直接的服务。

5. 使用当地货币报价。你的银行应能够为你提供帮助,如果它做不到的话,换一家银行。

6. 方言、气候和文化有许多变体。比如从大阪到东京,你可能需要不同的销售商和不同的翻译。这是由于你在东京的人完全不可能有合适的联系网络。

7. 重点强调你的产品的原产国。根据Wainwright和Kordel的说法,英国被看做是精巧、古典但充满历史的代名词。不论你销售的是珠宝或是工程产品,强调你的产品中的任何手工艺以及你所在城市的文化遗产。

8. 锻炼你的直觉。Wainwright和Kordel 表示礼貌的文化会避免日本客人表达出厌恶和不满。Wainwright说,如果他们造访英国,记住不经常享用大餐或过多的肉类。去吃鱼更为稳妥。

9. 有些Joloda的顾客是来自不熟悉西方文化的地区。Kordel建议这种顾客对英国的造访应从始至终收到监督指导并由翻译陪同。

10. 赠送礼物。Kordel说:“日本人喜欢送出和接受精美的礼物。”Wainwright 同样表示:“身份地位是非常重要的,所以那些名牌最受欢迎。然而,重要的不是礼物的价值,而是礼物是由你赠送的这个事实。”

第四篇:大学体验英语第三单元练习答案和课文翻译

Unit3 passage A课后答案

Content Awareness Read and think 2 Answer the following questions with the information you got from the passage. 1By checking out the large array of clubs and societies.

2 By browsing through a brand-new edition of the comprehensive guide to all things at Oxford or the Oxford Directory issued in Freshers’Week.

3 NO.Some totally immerse themselves in a club。others prefer to take a more eclectic approach while still others completely ignore University societies and just hang out with mates in college. 4 Those with more ambition than others,to promote their careers. 5 Yes,but not so many as to be a distraction or just to build a resume. Read and complete 3 Complete the following statements with the information you got from the passage. 1 C

2 A

3 B

4 B

5 D Language Focus Read and complete 4 Fill in the blanks with the words given below.Change the form where necessary.

1 tends

2 culture

3 applied

4 bored

5 secure 6 highly

7 negative 8 behavior

9 avoid

1 0 ignored 5 Complete the following sentences with phrases or expressions from the passage-Change the form where necessary.

1 hang out

2 checkout

3 giving out 4 threw herself into

5 immersed myself in 6 Complete each of the following sentences with the proper form of the word in the brackets- 1 ambitious2 United

3 dramatist 4 volunteer

5 flourishing Read and translate 7 Translate the following sentences into English.

1 Something is wrong with the piano,but I can’t put my finger on what it is. 2 Apart from being too large,the trousers don’t match my jacket,either. 3 I love pop music,for whatever reasons.

4 He has great interest in foreign cultures,often browsing through piles of books to look for any useful information.

5 Opinions on whether we should start a new society vary a great deal. Read and simulate 1 Whether you want to go on a picnic or go shopping tomorrow,the first thing you should do is finish your reading assignments this evening.

2 You may prefer to search for information via the Internet,being a member of the GOODBOOK club or something and reading online whichever of the books seems interesting.

3 Schoolwork on weekdays iS often tiring and it is necessary for US to relax on weekends.

4 When newcomers start their campus life which is supposed to be romantic, disappointment is almost inevitable. 5 With all these facilities,there is really something for everyone to enjoy.Unit3 passageA 课文翻译

俱乐部和社团

聚会、喝酒、吃饭——哦,还有工作——都让时光流逝,但你内心深处确有一些很想追寻的东西,却无法实现。你一直在寻找的,我的朋友,就是将你自己投身到大学社团中的机会,去发现各种各样的活动。这些团体在像牛津这样的城市里散发着勃勃生机。

不论你是想保持已有的兴趣,还是培养新的爱好,你首先应该到牛津大学学生会的新生集会上去看看那些 令人眼花缭乱的俱乐部。手持一张新生集会的入场券,你就可以得到一份崭新的关于牛津大学方方面面的综合 指南。如果你错过了这场集会,别泄气,在新生周里发给你的手册《牛津目录))上,你将看到各种社团的介绍。 你不妨稍作浏览——这可是你见识大学生活的重要机会。

人们投身社团生活的程度各不相同。有的完全沉醉于一个俱乐部,在接下来的三年里几乎不跟非本俱乐部成员说话,直至成为该组织的领导者。其余的人更愿意选择灵活的方式,参加几个社团,参加凡是他们感兴趣的活动。还有许多人,也许有点笨,完全无视大学社团的存在,只是与大学里的伙伴们在一起打发时间。

社团使人们有大量的机会结识校园以外的人,特别对于文科学生来说,这是难能可贵的。但是别忘了,许多学院有自己兴盛的社团,你也能在新生周里加入这些社团。音乐和戏剧总是很受欢迎,有兴趣的人聚在一起 做点什么,也并非难事。如果你有心为学校新搞一个莎士比亚说唱社团,你可以向大学校监申请注册,还可获 得启动资助、贷款及其他好处。

尤其是对大社团而言,其中的一个负面就是学生的钻营。“钻营”指的是有些学生在俱乐部或社团里追求职位的提高(通常是要做主席),有些社团,比如牛津学生会或同业协会总能吸引那些比别人更有野心的人。当学生们突然想到他们空白的履历,想到履历将与他们将来能否找到一份高收入的工作密切相关,想方设法往上爬 就几乎是在所难免的了。尽管如此,也不用担心:绝大多数学生不赞成这种自我钻营的行为。他们能够从容地 面对生活。

三百多个社团,对每个人来说,都应该能找到自己的位置。除了一些倾向明显的政治聚会和体育俱乐部外,所有的主要宗教都有自己的组织;有热衷于不同国家或地区的社会与文化的社团,包括从中国到保加利亚,以及从苏格兰到埃塞克斯的英国各地区;有热衷于义工、文学、音乐、戏剧和科幻小说的协会;还有五花八门的 奇特组织,比如玛格丽特女子学院布丁协会,牛津特技协会,以及普胡牌友协会。你会喜欢它们的。

Unit3 PassageB课后练习答案

Read and think 11 Choose the best answer to each question with the information you got from the passage. 1 D

2 A

3 C

4 B

5 D 12 Answer the following questions with the information you got from the passage. 1 A well-balanced life is necessary to live in today’S stressful world.Without a well—balanced life a person cannot function properly nor develop into a well-rounded individual.Without some sort of balance in life people tend to be unfulfilled and unhappy.

2 Because she wants to relieve the great stress that she’S experienced in her study and work.

3 Reading,listening to music,talking to her real life friends,or talking on the Internet with people she meets. 4 The friend pulled the author aside and invited her to go for a walk.They talked about what was going on in her life and the friend helped the author to figure out what she wanted to do. 5 I agree with the author. It is necessary to have a well-balanced life and leisure time helps a great deal in relieving one’s stress. But I prefer to solve the problems all by myself rather than talking to my friends. Language Focus Read and complete 13 Fill the blanks with the words given below. Change the form from where necessary. 1. leisure

2.stress

3. has adjusted4. relax

5. vital 6 depressed

7 social

8 relieved

9 handled

1 0 maintain 14 Complete the following sentences with words or expressions from the passage.Change the form where necessary.

1 went through

2 added to

3 led to

4 get by

5 figure out Read and translate 1. You can’t get to the island other than by boat.

2 Some students are crazy about pop music while others prefer classical music.

3 The media are playing an increasingly important role in leading fashions and trends 4 I tried every means to get a copy of his newly issued album.but failed.

5 Without his encouragement and help of my friends, Iwould have quit sch001. Reading Skills Practice PassageA 1pass

2throw

3find

4clubs

5societies

6immerse

7ignore8hang

9meet

10bored PassageB 1well-balanced2stress3leisure4extra

5dangerous 6tiresome7happens8depressed9maintain

10vital

Unit3 PassageB 课文翻译

心态平衡

在今天的现实生活中,保持心态平衡十分必要。生活中心态失衡,既无法很好地工作,心身也不能得到全面的发展。生活中有时心态失衡,人们就会觉得不满足,不愉快。

在学习和工作中我曾经历过巨大的压力,也试着用各种办法调整自己来减轻压力。最终我发现,好好利用业余时间是个办法。业余时间对我来说是不可或缺的。否则,我肯定会要发疯的。我的大部分业余时间都用于读书,听音乐,跟生活中的朋友交谈,或者跟网上遇到的人聊天。我真的很喜欢在外面找一个安静的地方读沃尔特·惠特曼和罗伯特·弗洛斯特的诗歌或著作。如果我没有时间做这些,那我也干不好别的事情。读书放松的同时,听音乐对我来说也是很重要的。如果我情绪低落,我就听慢悠悠的歌,如果我心情高兴,我就听快节奏的歌。音乐是人类共同的语言,能表达不同的情感。音乐能触及灵魂,确切地说,我认为音乐表达的实际上就是心灵的感受。

同生活中的朋友和网上的朋友交流都是我业余时间和社交生活的一部分。朋友对我来说总是重要的。不论我做什么,他们都是我的支柱。不论我处于什么情况,我的好朋友们总是支持着我。没有他们,我不可能过着健康的心态平衡的生活。不久之前,我经历了一小段时间的失意。手头所有的工作都没有进展,也不再跟朋友们谈心。就这样过了一个礼拜,我的一个好朋友将我拉到一边,邀我跟她出去散步。我们谈到我的情况,她帮我一起分析我到底想干什么。真不知道如果她不在我身边,我会怎么样。

许多事情都有助于你调节心态。压力是一种十分危险而又累人的经历,往往是消沉和不幸的开始。但如果真有了压力,你应该做点什么而不光是等待,比如跟朋友说说,或是听听音乐。这样你也许就会觉得自己不该这么沮丧,这么心事重重。

在生活中,保持心态平衡是很重要的。要是心态失衡,每一天的生活都将是难熬的。大胆创新地利用业余时间将起到决定性的作用。

Unit3 写作

练习答案

17 Fill in the blanks with the proper forms of the verbs provided.

1 did

2 comes

3 were reading4 has made

5 will take care of 6 would be 7 have lived

8 told

9 had risen

1 0 will have learned Write and correct 18 Correct the wrongly used irregular verb forms in the following sentences: 1 hold—held

2 writed—wrote

3 feeled—felt4 finded—一found

5 becomed—-become

6 chose—一chosen7 spend—一spent 8 heared—-heard

9 leaved—一left 10 swimmed—swam Write and complete 19 Fill in the blanks with the proper forms of the verbs provided. 1 like

2 seems

3 sounds

4 is singing/sings5 will sing 6 felt

7 Iost

8 had become

9 fail

10 will listen/listen

第五篇:大学体验英语综合教程2(第三版)翻译答案

大学体验英语综合教程2(第三版)翻译答案

Unit 1

A

1. 任何年满18岁的人都有资格投票。(be eligible to, vote)

Answer:Anyone over the age of 18 is eligible to vote.

2. 每学期开学前,这些奖学金的申请表格就会由学校发给每一个学生。(apply for, scholarship)

Answer:A form to apply for these scholarships is sent by the university to every student before the start of every semester.

3. 遵照医生的建议,我决定戒烟。(on the advice of)

Answer:On the advice of my doctor, I decided to give up smoking.

4. 公园位于县城的正中央。(be located in)

Answer:The park is located right in the center of town.

5. 这所大学提供了我们所需的所有材料和设备。(facilities)

Answer:The university provides all the materials and facilities we desire. B

1. 他们花了多年的时间寻找内心的平静,但是收效甚微。(search for)

Answer:They spent many years searching for peace of mind, but with little success.

2. 这种新药的成功研制已经使许多疾病的治疗发生了根本性的变革。(revolutionize) Answer:The successful development of the new drug has revolutionized the treatment of many diseases.

3. 由于这个国家的经济不景气,这家公司濒于破产。(on the edge of)

Answer:The company is on the edge of bankruptcy due to the economic depression in the country.

4. 大学毕业后他成为了一名护士。他认为护士这一职业可能很有发展前途。(rewarding) Answer:He became a nurse after college. He thought nursing could be a very rewarding career.

5. 他像往常一样在文件上签了名。(just as)

Answer:He signed his name on the paper just as he has always done it. Unit 2

A

1. 警察们正忙着填写关于这场事故的各种表格。(fill out)

Answer:The policemen are busy fi lling out forms about the accident.

2. 我想在还车之前把油箱加满。(fill up, fuel tank)

Answer:I want to fi ll up the fuel tank before returning the car.

3. 如果你要投诉,最好遵循正确的程序。(follow the procedure)

Answer:If you want to make a complaint, you’d better follow the correct procedure.

4. 要不是约翰帮忙,我们绝不会这么快就完成实验。(without)

Answer:We couldn’t have finished the experiment so soon without John’s help.

5. 暴风雨之后,岸边的人们焦急地搜索湖面以期发现小船的踪迹。(scan for)

Answer:After the storm, the people on the shore anxiously scanned the lake for any sign of the boat.

B

1. 这个国家不大,但是在国际事务中它却发挥着重要作用。(play a role)

Answer:This country is not big, but it plays an important role in international affairs.

2. 正是在我叔叔的帮助下,我得以克服困难,按时完成了任务。(it is ... that)

Answer:It was with the help of my uncle that I overcame the difficulty and completed the assignment in time.

3. 毕业时他决定留在北京,而他最好的朋友却选择了去西藏。(while)

Answer:While he decided to stay in Beijing upon graduation, his best friend chose to go to Tibet.

4. 在这次校园英语演讲比赛中,我们班的玛丽获得了第三名。(come in)

Answer:In this Campus English Speaking Contest, Mary from our class came in third.

5. 你应该知道学习弹钢琴需要有时间,有金钱,还要有毅力。(as well as)

Answer:You should know that it takes time, money as well as perseverance to learn to play the piano.

Unit 3

A

1. 我发现量入为出地过日子越来越难了。(increasingly)

Answer:I find it increasingly difficult to live within my income.

2. 现代政治家们都试图以电视讲话来影响普通百姓。(reach out)

Answer:Modern politicians try to reach out to ordinary people in their TV speeches.

3. 应该帮助学生对人生采取积极的态度。(adopt)

Answer:Pupils should be helped to adopt a positive attitude to life.

4. 希望全班同学参加这些讨论。(participate in)

Answer:Everyone in the class is expected to participate in these discussions.

5. 如果你犯了罪就必须受到惩罚。(crime)

Answer:If you commit a crime you must expect to be punished.

B

1.儿子的死让老妇人变得麻木痴呆了。(numb)

Answer:The old woman was numbed by her son’s death.

2.身处所有这些烦恼之中,他依然能保持乐观。(in the midst)

Answer:In the midst of all troubles, he managed to remain cheerful.

3. 虽有困难,他们还是设法坚持试验下去。(carry on)

Answer:They managed to carry on their experiments in spite of the difficulties.

4.我们必须淘汰不合格的申请人。(weed out)

Answer:We have to weed out unqualified applicants.

5. 医生要他减少抽烟。(cut down on)

Answer:The doctor told him to cut down on smoking.Unit4

A

1. 她在公共汽车站一直等到末班车进站。(come in)Answer:She waited at the bus stop until the last bus came in.

2.如果我们能帮得上忙,尽管和我们联系。(contact)Answer:If there is any way we can be of assistance, please do not hesitate to contact us.

3 .他需要多少船务人员才能使他的游艇航行?(crew, yacht)Answer:How many crew does he need to sail his yacht?

4 .虽然她的新书没有上一本好,但是我还是喜欢它。(not quite as)Answer:I enjoyed her new book though it’s not quite as good as her last one.

5 .我从未遇到过如此善良的人。(never before)Answer:Never before have I met such a kind person.

B

1. 公共汽车放慢速度并停下,让那位乘客上车。(slow down)Answer:The bus slowed down and stopped to allow the passenger to get on board.

2.许多车子都驶过去了,可是没有一辆愿意让我们搭便车。(roll by)Answer:Many vehicles rolled by, but no one offered us a ride.

3 .请勿践踏草地。(get off)Answer:Please get off the grass.

4.他按妻子的吩咐,一下班就去了市场。(make one’s way)Answer:He made his way to the marketplace right after work, as his wife had asked him to do.

5 .值得庆幸的是,史蒂夫 (Steve) 从自行车上摔下来时没有摔断骨头。(luckily)Answer:Luckily, Steve didn’t break any bones when he fell off his bike.

Unit5

A

1. 我们得把感情放在一边,从专业的角度来对待这件事。(from a professional standpoint) Answer:We have to put aside our emotions and take it from a professional standpoint.

2. 这部戏非常精彩,我很快就沉浸于激动人心的剧情之中。(lose oneself in)

Answer:The play was so wonderful that I soon lost myself in the excitement of it.

3 .她没有什么爱好——除非你把看电视也算是一种爱好。(unless)

Answer:She hasn’t got any hobbies — unless you call watching TV a hobby.

4. 他说他是直接从市长本人那里得到这个信息的。(first-hand)

Answer:He said that he had got the information first-hand from the Mayor himself.

5 .既然你不能回答这个问题,我们最好问问别人。(since)

Answer:Since you can’t answer the question, perhaps we’d better ask someone else.

B

1. 由于公共汽车司机突然刹车,旅客们都不由自主地向前摔倒。(brake, pitch forward) Answer:All the passengers pitched forward because the bus driver braked sharply.

2. 这个协议将冲破对自由贸易设置的障碍。(break through, obstacle)

Answer:This agreement will break through the obstacles to free trade.

3 .我刚放下叫出租车的电话,车就来了。(soon after)

Answer:The taxi arrived soon after I rang for it.

4. 在过去,不管我什么时候到家,我父母总会等我。(no matter)

Answer:My parents always waited up for me no matter what time I got home.

5 .由于没有一方愿意让步,两个公司之间的对话完全破裂了。(break down)

Answer:Talks between the two companies completely broke down, because neither of them wanted to give in.

Unit6

A

1. 那件工作很难做,不过我想试试看。(have a shot)

Answer:It’s a difficult job, but I’d like to have a shot.

2. 这是一本关于商务实践而非理论的书。(as opposed to)

Answer:This is a book about business practice as opposed to theory.

3. 社会活动从未耽误她的学习。(in the way)

Answer:Social activities never get in the way of her studies.

4. 直到1911年人们才发现第一种维生素。(It is not until ... that)

Answer:It was not until 1911 that the first of the vitamins was identified.

5. 尽管年事已高,爷爷每天还帮忙做家务。(despite)

Answer:Despite advanced years, Grandpa helps do housework every day.

B

1. 我们的婚姻很幸福,但我们也曾经历过许多坎坷。(ups and downs)

Answer:Our marriage is happy but we’ve had many ups and downs.

2. 许多外语教师常常在课堂上自顾自地讲得太多。(be inclined to)

Answer:Many teachers of foreign languages are inclined to talk too much themselves in class.

3. 那位著名演员每天早晨锻炼一小时以保持健康。(work out)

Answer:The famous actor keeps fit by working out for an hour every morning.

4. 与他促膝长谈之后,她的怀疑消失了。(melt away)

Answer:After a long heart-to-heart talk with him, her suspicion melted away.

5. 目前我们没有职位空缺,但我们肯定会记住您的申请。(keep in mind)

Answer:We have no vacancies now, but we’ll certainly keep your application in mind.

Unit7

A

1. 他并不后悔说过的话,只是觉得他完全可以不用这种方式表达。(could have done)

Answer:He did not regret what he had said but felt that he could have expressed it differently.

2. 我们最好等到12月14日。那时大卫已考完试,就能和我们一起去度假了。(will have done) Answer:We’d better wait till 14 December. David will have had his exam by then, so he’ll be able to go on holiday with us.

3. 他正在做一个新项目,年底前必须完成。(work on)

Answer:He’s working on a new project which has to be finished by the end of the year.

4. 他们让我们使用他们的实验室,作为回报,我们则让他们分享研究成果。(in return)

Answer:They are letting us use their lab, and in return, we are sharing with them the results of our research.

5. 诸如打电话、听电话一类的事情占用了这位秘书的大部分时间。(take up)

Answer:Such things as making and answering telephone calls take up most of the secretary’s time.

B

1. 他们把房子卖了后就到加拿大和女儿住在一起。(go off) Answer:They sold their house and went off to live in Canada with their daughter.

2. ——你下星期这个时候会在干什么?

——还是像平常一样干活。(will be doing)

Answer:What will you be doing this time next week?I’ll be working as usual.

3. 他既聪明又勤奋,不久就接管了杂志的编辑工作。(editing; before long)

Answer:He was intelligent and hard-working and before long he took over the editing of the magazine.

4. 你话还没说完别人就挂断电话,难道你不恼火吗?(hang up)

Answer:Don’t you hate it when someone hangs up on you before you finish speaking?

5. 让他们感到惊恐的是,他们的房顶着火了。(to one’s horror)

Answer:To their horror, the roof of their house caught fire.

Unit8

A

1. 为了追求更为健康的饮食,人们现在吃的鱼比过去更多。(in pursuit of)

Answer:In pursuit of a healthier diet, people are eating more flish than they used to.

2.我们需要在坏天气到来之前叫人把屋顶修一修。(set in)

Answer:We need to have the roof repaired before the bad weather sets in.

3. 这种疾病正在蔓延,所有儿童都有被传染的危险。(at risk)

Answer:The disease is spreading, and all young children are at risk.

4. 信息通过电话线从一台电脑传到另一台电脑。(transmit)

Answer:The information is transmitted from one computer to another through a telephone line.

5. 杰克是个相当好的赛跑运动员。他在大多数情况下都能获胜。(more often than not) Answer:Jack is a fairly good runner. He wins more often than not.

B

1. 正如数据显示,我们在短时间内已在这一领域取得了巨大的成就。(demonstrate) Answer:As the statistics demonstrates we have made great progress in this field in a short period of time.

2. 伟大领袖的丰功伟绩在歌曲和故事中传诵。(exploits)

Answer:The exploits of great leaders have been told in songs and stories.

3. 路很远,我们轮流开车吧。(take turn)

Answer:It is a long way. Let's take turn driving.

4. 事实证明,造成灾难的不是计算机故障,而是银行家。(turn out)

Answer:It turns out that it is the banker rather than the computer fault that has caused the disaster.

5. 他们必须采取具体措施来实行技术更新,否则计划就会落空。(end in)

Answer:They must take practical measures to carry out their plan; otherwise it will end in smoke.

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