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是毛猴不是毛毛也不是猴猴txt下载百度云网盘全本,【GRE阅读解析】Passage 70【灵长类的雄性照顾】长文章 详细解析

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The main exception to primate researchers’ general pattern has been the study of male care among monogamous primates. It has been known for over 200 years, ever since a zoologist- illustrator named George Edwards decided to watch the behavior of pet marmosets in a London garden, that among certain species of New World monkeys males contributed direct care for infants that equaled or exceeded that given by females. Mothers among marmosets and tamarins typically give birth to twins, as often as twice a year, and to court the female in her staggering reproductive burden the male carries the infant at all times except when the mother is actually suckling it. It was assumed by Kleiman that monogamy and male confidence of paternity were essential to the evolution of such care, and at the same time, it was assumed by Symons and others that monogamy among primates must be fairly rare.

Recent findings, however, make it necessary to reverse this picture. First of all, monogamy among primates turns out to be rather more frequent than previously believed (either obligate or facultive monogamy can be documented for some 17-20 percent of extant primates) and second, male care turns out to be far more extensive than previously thought and not necessarily confined to monogamous species, according to Hardy. Whereas previously, it was assumed that monogamy and male certainty of paternity facilitated the evolution of male care, it now seems appropriate to consider the alternative possibility that the extraordinary capacity of male primates to look out for the fates of infants did in some way pre-adapt members of this order for the sort of close, long-term relationships between males and females that, under some ecological circumstances, leads to monogamy. Either scenario could be true. The point is that on the basis of present knowledge there is no reason to view male care as a restricted or specialized phenomenon. In sum, though it remains true that mothers among virtually all primates devote more time and/ or energy to rearing infants than do males, males nonetheless play a more varied and critical role in infant survival than is generally realized.

1.The author the passage mentions the work of Hardy primarily to

A. present an instance of untenable assumption

B. illustrate a consensus by citing a representative claim

C. provide evidence that challenges a belief

D. highlight a corollary of a widespread view

E. offer data that help resolve a debate

答案:B

2. According to the passage, the evolutionary relationship between male care and monogamy is

A. incontestable

B. immutable

C. uncommon

D. immaterial

E. uncertain

答案:E

3. The author of the passage suggests that it is “appropriate to consider the alternative possibility” because the previous view

A. results in a contradiction

B. depends on problematic data

C. appears less definite given certain facts

D. conflates two distinct phenomena

E. overlooks a causal relationship between correlated phenomena

答案:C

4. Which of the following statement, if true, would provide the greatest support to “the alternative possibility”?

A. The number of primate species in which male care of infants is exhibited is greater than the number of primate species that practice monogamy.

B. Male care of infants among primates can be seen earlier in the evolutionary record than can monogamy among primates.

C. Monogamous relationships among primates can be found in species living in a variety of physical environments.

D. Most primate species that practice monogamy do not show any evidence of male care of infants.

E. Male care of infants can be observed in some primate species that lack male confidence of paternity.

答案:B

解析见下。

【第一段】The main exception to primate researchers’ general pattern has been the study of male care among monogamous primates.

第1句:灵长类动物研究者(所发现的)的普遍模式的主要例外是对单偶制灵长类动物的雄性照顾的研究。

既然本文开头就说The main exception to primate researchers’ general pattern,那就意味着首先有个普遍模式,也就是本文建立在一个前提之上:研究灵长类动物的研究者们已经研究出灵长类动物存在一种普遍模式。具体是针对什么的模式现在还看不出来。

同时还能看出,这种模式虽然普遍,但并不是所有情况都符合这种模式。是存在例外的。

例外是:单偶制灵长类动物存在雄性照顾。这也就说明了,普遍模式是:灵长类动物不存在雄性照顾,也就是灵长类动物的雄性是不参与照顾幼崽的,都靠雌性。但是,单偶制的(也就是一夫一妻的)灵长类动物中存在雄性参与育幼的情况,这就是相对普遍模式来说的例外。

注意了,之所以说这种雄性参与育幼的情况只能算“例外”,是因为当时人们认为这种行为仅限于单偶制的灵长类动物之中。这也说明,在当时的人们看来,灵长类动物中,单偶制很可能并不是普遍情况。

It has been known for over 200 years, ever since a zoologist- illustrator named George Edwards decided to watch the behavior of pet marmosets in a London garden, that among certain species of New World monkeys males contributed direct care for infants that equaled or exceeded that given by females.

第2句:自从一位叫做乔治爱德华兹的动物学家+插图画家决定观察一个伦敦花园里的宠物marmoset猴的行为以来,两百多年以来,人们一直认为,在某些新世界猴类物种中,雄性对婴儿的直接照顾等同或超过了雌性给出的。

显然,是乔治爱德华兹通过观察宠物marmoset猴的行为而首次发现,这种猴中雄性对婴儿的照顾居然等同于甚至超过了雌性对婴儿的照顾。从那时起到今天两百多年来,人们一致认为,这种现象确实存在在一些新世界(指的是美洲)猴类中。(旧世界指的是美洲之外的地方,比如欧亚大陆、非洲)

新世界猴类只是全世界猴类的一个部分,所以某些具有雄性育幼行为的新世界猴类被当作了是全部灵长类的例外情况。

Mothers among marmosets and tamarins typically give birth to twins, as often as twice a year, and to court the female in her staggering reproductive burden the male carries the infant at all times except when the mother is actually suckling it.

第3句:marmoset猴和绢毛猴之中的母亲通常生下双胞胎,频率多达每年生下两胎,并且为了向在繁重的生育重负中艰难挣扎的雌性献殷勤,雄性始终带着幼仔,除了当母亲真的哺乳的时候。

为什么新世界的marmoset猴还有绢毛猴的雄性的育幼行为恨不得比雌性还多呢?因为雌性生育太频繁,负担重。每年最多生两次,每次通常都生双胞胎,都靠雌性一个人带,雌性就不干了。为了讨好雌性,雄性就天天背着带着幼崽,只有吃奶的时候去找妈妈。

诶,问题来了。这两种猴是不是单偶制的?

看这个育幼的描述,很像是单偶制的。因为多偶制一般是一雄多雌,那哪怕雄性再有心想帮忙,也有心无力,因为它有很多雌性伴侣,每个雌性伴侣都有幼崽,它一只雄猴不可能带N个幼崽啊。想想看,十几只小猴挂身上,那画面太美……

并且,结合第一句话,文章说了,雄性育幼是单偶制灵长类才有的例外情况,所以这两种猴应该是作为单偶制灵长类的例子拿出来说的。

It was assumed by Kleiman that monogamy and male confidence of paternity were essential to the evolution of such care, and at the same time, it was assumed by Symons and others that monogamy among primates must be fairly rare.

第4句:克莱曼认为,单偶制和雄性亲子信任对于这种照顾的进化是必不可少的,同时,西蒙斯和其他人认为灵长类动物之间的单偶制肯定是相当罕见的。

Marmoset猴和绢毛猴这种雄性承担了大量育幼工作的猴猴还是挺稀奇的,引得研究者来分析。克莱曼就分析说,能进化出这种照顾模式——也就是这种照顾模式能出现,需要两个条件:单偶制+雄性亲子信任。也就是,就像我们在上句话里猜测的,一定得是单偶制才行,多偶制(一雄多雌)是不可能指望雄性这样深度参与育幼的,不现实啊;并且还必须具有“雄性亲子信任”——说人话,也就是雄性相信这幼崽是它亲生的,不然它凭什么带不是自己的崽。

那也就是说,Marmoset猴和绢毛猴因为是单偶制+雄性具有亲子信任,也就是一夫一妻制并且彼此忠诚、雄性知道这是自己的崽,所以雄性能有这种带崽行为。这条件有点苛刻。

西蒙斯和其他人还认为,灵长类动物之间的单偶制肯定是相当罕见的——也就是很多人都觉得灵长类里面,多偶制才是主流。既然单偶制少见,那么像Marmoset猴和绢毛猴这种雄性承担了大量育幼工作的猴猴,肯定是例外、不是主流啦。

【第二段】Recent findings, however, make it necessary to reverse this picture.

第1句:然而,最近的发现使得有必要扭转这一局面。

哈,前面的主流观点受到新发现的冲击了!

First of all, monogamy among primates turns out to be rather more frequent than previously believed (either obligate or facultive monogamy can be documented for some 17-20 percent of extant primates) and second, male care turns out to be far more extensive than previously thought and not necessarily confined to monogamous species, according to Hardy.

第2句:首先,灵长类动物之间的单偶制事实证明比以前认为的更频繁(强制性的或兼性单偶制可在约17-20%的现存灵长类动物种被观察到),其次,根据赫迪的说法,雄性关怀比以前以为的更加广泛,并不一定局限于单偶制的物种。

以前人觉得灵长类动物中单偶制是少数例外情况。现在人们发现,灵长类动物中单偶制比以前认为的普遍多了,大概将近20%灵长类都有单偶制行为,也就是5种猩猩猿猴就有一种会采用单偶制,不少了。

并且,还有个叫Hardy的人认为,雄性照顾也不是只在单偶制灵长类动物里才有——也就是说,Hardy认为哪怕是多偶制灵长类也可能有雄性照顾行为——换句话说,雄性照顾比以前认为的更普遍!

Whereas previously, it was assumed that monogamy and male certainty of paternity facilitated the evolution of male care, it now seems appropriate to consider the alternative possibility that the extraordinary capacity of male primates to look out for the fates of infants did in some way pre-adapt members of this order for the sort of close, long-term relationships between males and females that, under some ecological circumstances, leads to monogamy.

第3句:而以前认为,单偶制和雄性亲子信任促进了雄性照顾的发展,现在看来,考虑另一种可能性是恰当的,即雄性灵长类在照顾婴儿命运方面的非凡能力在某种程度上使这种种类的成员预适应了雌雄之间那种密切的长期关系,在某些生态环境下,这种关系会导致单偶制。

以前人们是这么猜想【单偶制】、【雄性亲子信任】和【雄性照顾】之间的关系的:是【单偶制】+【雄性亲子信任】导致了【雄性照顾】的产生。

现在有另一种假说:可能是雄性灵长类的【雄性照顾】能力出众,能够和雌性结成一对一的长期密切关系共同育幼,使得雌性觉得这样也挺不错,这个小伙子挺会照顾崽的,这个物种于是逐渐适应了单偶制。也就是【雄性照顾】导致了【单偶制】。

Either scenario could be true.

第4句:两种情况都可能是真实的。

上面这两种进化路径都是猜想,谁也不知道到底哪个是对的,有可能这两种进化方式都发生过。

The point is that on the basis of present knowledge there is no reason to view male care as a restricted or specialized phenomenon.

第5句:关键是,根据目前的知识,没有理由将雄性照顾视为有限的或特殊的现象。

不管是先有【雄性照顾】然后产生【单偶制】,还是先有【单偶制】然后产生【雄性照顾】,也就是不管【雄性照顾】和【单偶制】之间的关系是先有鸡还是先有蛋,现在我们搞不清楚。但有件事要搞清楚:雄性照顾不是例外情况。以前觉得雄性照顾是例外,不常见,这种老看法是有问题的。

In sum, though it remains true that mothers among virtually all primates devote more time and/ or energy to rearing infants than do males, males nonetheless play a more varied and critical role in infant survival than is generally realized.

第6句:总而言之,虽然几乎所有灵长类动物的母亲在饲养婴儿方面投入的时间和精力都比雄性多,但雄性在婴儿存活方面的作用却比通常所认识到的更为多样和关键。

虽然几乎所有的灵长类动物的雌性为养育幼崽付出的时间精力都比雄性多,但是,以前人们没有正确认识到雄性在养育幼崽中起的作用。雄性在养育幼崽中实际起到的作用比以前人们以为的更为关键——意思是很重要,也更为多样——意思估计是,不同种类的灵长类雄性在养育幼崽中起到的作用可能彼此不同,而以前人们误以为灵长类雄性只能起到有限的几种作用。

题目解析略,需要去公号。

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