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even后面加ing吗,data做主语时谓语动词需要单三吗?

互联网 2021-10-26 14:22:07 Tags:even后面加ing吗

can后面加ing吗初三网比较级百度百科 baike.baidu.combegoodαt后面跟ing吗 guangdong.xkyn.comwent后面加ing吗 guangdong.xkyn.comhave后面加ing吗 guangdong.xkyn.comdoesntlike后面加ing吗 tianpingzuo.xkyn.com英语特殊句式之There be句型 知乎have后面加ing吗 xinli.xkyn.com

data是datum的复数形式这种事情查字典就可以解决了,真正的问题在于,我们平时看新闻、看文献、跟老外沟通,经常发现data后面有的时候接is/was,有的时候接are/were,有的时候动词是第三人称单数形式,有的时候是原型……仔细想就会迷惑。

其实解决这个问题的方式很简单,如果从学术论文措辞的角度思考,直接去国际上顶级学术刊物的网站上搜“data”,看看人家是怎么用的即可,毕竟数据的事情让数据说话。

于是,我在我自己领域(生物医学)内的几个顶级刊物-新英格兰、柳叶刀、Nature、Science和Cell的网站首页随机点开论文,拉网式搜索“data”,发现,所有的学术文章跟学术有关的内容,data后面的动词全部不是第三人称单数形式,系动词全部用的是are/were,there be句型里的data也全部在are/were的后面,没有例外

几大顶刊我每个都随机截取了学术论文里5句data后面跟动词的情况,大家不用管句子的意思,看看动词,感受一下就好。

新英格兰:

Our data are also consistent with poorer neutralization of the virus with the full set of B.1.351-spike mutations than virus with either subset of mutations and suggested that virus with mutant residues in the receptor-binding site (K417N, E484K, and N501Y) is more poorly neutralized than virus with Δ242-244, which is located in the N-terminal domain of the spike protein.Data for decision making are rarely available when needed, but the “retrospect-o-scope” is always ready to judge decisions that have been made.Although the immune response to the first dose is unlikely to degrade quickly, it is incomplete, and there are no data to inform how long a second dose could be delayed without compromising effectiveness.Minimal data are available from adequately powered randomized, controlled trials.Robust safety data, including pediatric-focused studies and postlicensure monitoring for potential rare outcomes such as vaccineassociated MIS-C, are a bare minimum, as is ensuring just and equitable access to vaccination.

柳叶刀:

Although race and ethnicity data on COVID-19 outcomes are limited, Black, non-Hispanic people accounted for 15·3% of the 250 572 deaths for which race and ethnicity data were available (76% of 326 015 deaths) on Feb 7, 202113—a death rate that is 1·5 times higher than the rate among white, non-Hispanic people.In addition, data from an additional month of follow-up are now available for inclusion in the analysis, providing greater precision in estimates because of the larger number of cases for analysis in comparison with the previous report.These dataindicate that ChAdOx1 nCoV-19, used in the authorised schedules, might have a substantial effect on transmission by reducing the number of infected individuals in the population.All data were anonymized according to good clinical practice guidelines and data protection regulations.Bearing in mind limited data, the present study also suggests that younger individuals are unlikely to develop severe disease, but more data are needed to confirm this supposition.

Nature:

After accounting for selection bias — the fact that researchers have observed only a small portion of the outer Solar System — the data suggest that ETNOs are uniformly distributed across the sky.Temporal genomic data hold great potential for studying evolutionary processes such as speciation. Previously published data used in this study are available under accession numbers PRJEB24361 and PRJEB7929.Data from another study hint at this: extrusion stripes occur near DSBs in dividing yeast cells, but diminish following depletion of MRX (rather than cohesin).Moreover, our data also indicate that, upon DSB induction, the loop strength is reinforced, cohesin accumulates at loop anchors and the cohesin complex itself is modified by ATM within damaged TADs.

Science:

Data were obtained from three to five organoids or culture wells (coverslips) in each WT and mutant cell line.Combined, these data suggest extensive transcriptional reprogramming of myeloid cell metabolism in the hematoma milieu that may modulate their functions during this period.As more data become available, we can move beyond estimating the combined effect of a bundle of NPIs and begin to understand the effects of individual interventions.Sufficient data on transmission have now accumulated to discern the effectiveness of individual interventions.Early data from Israel indicate vaccinated people who nevertheless became infected with SARS-CoV-2 have reduced levels of virus, which may make them less contagious.

Cell:

Although we cannot formally exclude that some HIV-1 particles undergo uncoating before nuclear import or during NPC translocation, our data argue against it.Live cell fluorescence microscopy data were recorded on a SP8 X-SMD FLIM confocal microscope (Leica).Therefore, our data provide a potential mechanism of how excessive mechanotransduction in macrophages affects phagocytosis via calcium and Rac1 activation.The DMS data define the effect of each possible single amino acid change on both expression of the RBD and its capacity to bind hACE2.These data demonstrate that BDNF, FLX, and KET promote TRKB trafficking in dendritic spines, and this effect is disrupted in TRKB.Y433F mutants.

没有第三人称单数,无一例外!

整个检索过程中,只偶尔在Nature的一个Newsletter里,一个引号内引用的口语里出现了data接is的情况,如下:

“The data is certainly intriguing and suggestive that vaccination may reduce the infectiousness of COVID-19 cases, even if it does not prevent infection altogether,” says Virginia Pitzer, an infectious-diseases modeller at Yale School of Public Health in New Haven, Connecticut.

那么,我们换个思路,也搜搜日常生活里“data”的使用情况,以几个英语新闻网站的首页新闻为例:

《华盛顿邮报》:“The FBI reports help us identify trends, but their data is so woefully inadequate that it can’t be relied on for much,” said civil rights lawyer Arjun Singh Sethi, author of “American Hate: Survivors Speak Out.”

《纽约时报》:New data suggests premiums need to increase sharply for some homes.

《China Daily》:The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has recorded nearly 409,000 coronavirus cases and 1,438 deaths among healthcare personnel nationwide, but the agency acknowledges its data is incomplete.

日常的例子不多举了,大家见的也多,我发现,不论是引号里的口语还是新闻用语,data接is/was和第三人称单数动词形式居多……

至此,我对自己的解释是,在正式的学术论文的书面用语里,data是个复数名词,不应该接第三人称单数动词,但是在日常生活里、在口语里,data常被当成一个不可数的集合和概念,用法会更灵活,接第三人称单数更多

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